Testing

Diaphyseal fractures of long bones

Diaphyseal fractures of long bones Diaphyseal fractures of long bones. Composite femoral models with simulated diaphyseal fractures are treated with external fixation (ExFix) or intramedullary nailing (IMN) and tested for torsional and flexural behaviour. Internal-external rotation tests and dynamic sagittal 4-point bending tests were conducted. Load (torque or oment) versus displacement (rotation angle or deflection) data were recorded and processed.
 
Diaphyseal fractures of long bones
Composite femoral models with simulated diaphyseal fractures are treated with external fixation (ExFix) or intramedullary nailing (IMN) and  tested for torsional and flexural behaviour. Internal-external rotation tests and dynamic sagittal 4-point bending tests were conducted. Load (torque or oment) versus displacement (rotation angle or deflection) data were recorded and processed.

Lumbar Spine Kinematics

Lumbar Spine Kinematics. A composite pelvic model with adjacent lumbar vertebrae is placed on testing machine to receive dynamic axial and mediolateral compressive deformations. A frontal close-up view of L1-L2-L3 vertebrae is video-recorded, for subsequent processing and calculation of angular displacements and other kinematic parameters. Meticulous alignment of the composite model is achieved by means of laser aligner.

Lumbar Spine Kinematics
A composite pelvic model with adjacent lumbar vertebrae is placed on testing machine to receive dynamic axial and mediolateral compressive deformations. A frontal close-up view of L1-L2-L3 vertebrae is video-recorded, for subsequent processing and calculation of angular displacements and other kinematic parameters. Meticulous alignment of the composite model is achieved by means of laser aligner.

ACL Reconstruction

ACL Reconstruction. Experimental simulation of anterior drawer test on animal knee specimens is a demanding bench-top application. A special device was designed, optimized and manufactured from stainless steel, in order to investigate the potential of various ACL reconstruction techniques.

ACL Reconstruction

Experimental simulation of anterior drawer test on animal knee specimens is a demanding bench-top application. A special device was designed, optimized and manufactured from stainless steel, in order to investigate the potential of various ACL reconstruction techniques.

Intramedullary Nailing (IMN)

Intramedullary Nailing (IMN) of long bones. A femur model with a bipolar diaphyseal fracture and IMN in place, is about to receive dynamic 4-point bending on the sagittal plane, for characterization of flexural properties.

Intramedullary Nailing (IMN) of long bones
A femur model with a bipolar diaphyseal fracture and IMN in place, is about to receive dynamic 4-point bending on the sagittal plane, for characterization of flexural properties.

External fixation of long bones

External fixation of long bones A femur model with a bipolar diaphyseal fracture and external fixation construct is fixed and rotated in torsion machine, for characterization of torsional behaviour.

External fixation of long bones
A femur model with a bipolar diaphyseal fracture and external fixation construct is fixed and rotated in torsion machine, for characterization of torsional behaviour.

Lumbar Spine

Lumbar Spine Lumbar Spine. A pelvic model with adjacent lumbar vertebrae, placed on testing machine against laser aligner, ready to receive axial and mediolateral compressive deformation.    

Lumbar Spine
A pelvic model with adjacent lumbar vertebrae, placed on testing machine against laser aligner, ready to receive axial and mediolateral compressive deformation.

Trochanteric femoral fractures

Trochanteric femoral fractures Femur models with an unstable pertrochanteric fracture, simulated by missing lesser trochanter fragment, are treated with dynamic hip screw (DHS). Specimens receive dynamic 3 x body-weight axial load, while interfragmentary gap sizing is digitally monitored and subsequently quantified. Meticulous 3D specimen alignment of a femur models is conducted prior to distal potting with acrylic resin cement.  

Trochanteric femoral fractures
Femur models with an unstable pertrochanteric fracture, simulated by missing lesser trochanter fragment, are treated with dynamic hip screw (DHS). Specimens receive dynamic 3 x body-weight axial load, while interfragmentary gap sizing is digitally monitored and subsequently quantified. Meticulous 3D specimen alignment of a femur models is conducted prior to distal potting with acrylic resin cement.

Biomechanics for Animal Models

Biomechanical Tests for Animal Specimens. A 3-point bending protocol was executed to examine the flexural characteristics of ulnae, under various clinical treatments (New Zealand rabbit model). Appropriately contoured steel supports ensured an enhanced specimen alignment and load application.

Biomechanical Tests for Animal Specimens
A 3-point bending protocol was executed to examine the flexural characteristics of ulnae, under various clinical treatments (New Zealand rabbit model). Appropriately contoured steel supports ensured an enhanced specimen alignment and load application.

Trochanteric Femoral Fractures

Trochanteric Femoral Fractures Femur models with an unstable pertrochanteric fracture, simulated by the missing lesser trochanter fragment, are treated with external fixator and biomechanically tested. Specimens receive dynamic 3 x body-weight axial load (3BW), and load versus displacement curves are recorded for determination of passive construct stiffness.

Trochanteric Femoral Fractures
Femur models with an unstable pertrochanteric fracture, simulated by the missing lesser trochanter fragment, are treated with external fixator and biomechanically tested. Specimens receive dynamic 3 x body-weight axial load (3BW), and load versus displacement curves are recorded for determination of passive construct stiffness.

Sacroiliac Joint Osteosynthesis

Osteosynthesis of the Sacroiliac Joint Several techniques for osteosynthesis of unstable sacroiliac joint fractures were simulated on composite hemipelvic and sacral bone models. Specimens were tested under the extreme scenario of a disrupted pelvic-ring configuration, with unilateral support and axial load at the L5-S1 interface. A specially designed and manufactured jig was necessary for rigid, repeatable and anatomically-relevant specimen alignment and fixation.

Sacroiliac Joint Osteosynthesis
Several techniques for osteosynthesis of unstable sacroiliac joint fractures were simulated on composite hemipelvic and sacral models. Specimens were tested under the extreme scenario of disrupted pelvic-ring, with unilateral support and axial load at the L5-S1 interface. A specially designed and manufactured jig was necessary for rigid, repeatable and anatomically-relevant specimen alignment and fixation.

Ilizarov External Fixation

Ilizarov External Ring Skeletal Fixation An Ilizarov external fixation frame, with pre-tensioned wires and cylindrical bone-substitute, is placed on testing machine to receive axial and transverse loading, for monitoring isolated bone-substitute mobility and wire construct stiffness, under different anatomical configurations of wire placement. A specially designed and manufactured jig was necessary for rigid, safe and repeatable fixation of different construct configurations.

Ilizarov External Ring Skeletal Fixation

An Ilizarov external fixation frame, with pre-tensioned wires and cylindrical bone-substitute, is placed on testing machine to receive axial and transverse loading, for monitoring bone-substitute mobility and wire construct stiffness, under different anatomical configurations of wire placement. A specially designed jig was necessary for rigid, safe and repeatable fixation of different construct configurations.

Meniscal Tear Reconstructions

Meniscal tear reconstructions Specimens treated with different reconstruction techniques for simulated meniscal tears are suspended in water bath and subjected to tensile loading test, in order to evaluate the biomechanical behaviour of techniques in vitro. A water-proof thermocouple monitors constant temperature (37oC).

Meniscal Tear Reconstructions
Specimens treated with different reconstruction techniques for simulated meniscal tears are suspended in water bath and subjected to tensile loading test, in order to evaluate the biomechanical behaviour of techniques in vitro.  A thermo- couple monitors constant temperature (37oC).